8. The following limitations were encountered within the study.

by Richsadler
in blog
Comments are off for this post.

8. The following limitations were encountered within the study.

This objective ended up being attained by the way of a focus group, some questions were formed to generally access the data about money management as a whole population while the role it could play inside their monetary situation. It was done via open ended questions to give the participant power to get feedback and discuss in form of complex textual descriptions to access just how people go through the provided research issue. Sample here also included students, unemployed people, part time workers, full-time workers and self employed individuals with different sex and age brackets.

Objective 7: Suggest a brand new Theory on Money Management in hard times.

,

Thus in previously discussed means the objectives were addressed and data are gathered and analyzed while the last objective to suggest a brand new Theory on Money Management in hard times to emerged due to the accomplishment associated with previous research objectives.

,

To export a mention of this article please pick a referencing stye below:

If you’re the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have your projects published in the UKDiss.com internet site then please:

Associated Services

,

Our educational writing and marking services can help you!

Related Lectures

,

Study for free with this selection of university lectures!

,

Looking for a flexible role?
Have you got a 2:1 degree or more?

Learn Resources

,

Free resources to help you together with your university studies!

We’ve received widespread press coverage since 2003

Your UKEssays purchase is protected and now we’re rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk

All work is written to order. No plagiarism, guaranteed in full!

We’re here to answer any questions you’ve got about our services

Copyright © 2003 – 2020 – UKEssays is really a trading name of All Answers Ltd, company registered in England and Wales. Company Registration No: 4964706. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ.

*You may also browse our support articles here >

, “

3320 words (13 pages) Essay

25th May 2018 Biology Reference this

Disclaimer: This work was submitted with a university student. This is simply not a good example of the work created by our Essay Writing Service. You can view examples of our professional work here.

Any views, findings, conclusions or suggestions expressed in this material are those associated with authors and never always reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Tetrodotoxin is alkaloid based aquatic toxins. These toxins are probably one of the most potent non-proteinaceous toxins plus the best-known marine natural toxins. Diodon hystrix (porcupine fish) were collected from Chennai costal region and dissected under sterile conditions to acquire: liver, skin, gonads, intestine, eyes and kidney. 20g of every organ ended up being macerated in 200ml of Methanol:Acetic Acid [99:1]. The filtrate is then condensed in Rota-Vaccum evaporator to obtain crude extract. The focus of the study would be to confirm the clear presence of TTX (Tetrodotoxin) in six different organs of Diodon hystrix. Analytical techniques used were GC-MS and UV spectroscopy. Also, genotoxicity associated with crude extract were analysed utilizing human leukocyte culture and SCE assay utilizing onion root guidelines. The outcomes suggest the clear presence of TTX in major skin, liver and intestine and that, the organ extract doesn’t have any genotoxic effect but is effective at increasing the sibling chromatid change.

Keywords: TTX, Diodon hystrix, genotoxicity, root tip assay.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a very powerful alkaloid neurotoxin that is non-proteinacious in nature. TTX can withstand really temperature and is water soluble but is suffering from extreme pH conditions, i.e., above 8.5 and below 3.0 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. These properties allow it to be a dangerous toxin capable to communicate well with its environment [1, 2, 5]. It’s found in both aquatic in addition to terrestrial organisms and studies have proven that it’s synthesized by symbiotic microorganisms, bacteria properly, present in the gut, initially acquired through the meals chain or on the skin associated with animals but its biosynthesis pathway is still unknown [ 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8]. TTX acts as an ion pore blocker, binding

If you want assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to simply help!

to site 1 sodium channel receptor associated with axon membrane therefore inhibiting the influx of sodium ions and so resulting in the blockage of action potentials [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. TTX is ten thousand times poisonous than cyanide and another of the very most fatal poisons on Earth.ap biology photosynthesis essay questions and answers The LD50 is approximately 0.2μg when injected in mice [2, 5]. On the other hand, combined with the deadly traits, clinical trials and scientific tests have demonstrated that TTX has remarkable therapeutic properties as an analgesic in cancer treatment process [2].

Puffer fish of the order Tetraodontiformes, was indeed identified to be the reason for many mortalities because of food poisoning being a results of TTX intoxication. In several countries such as for instance Japan and China, puffer fish is viewed as a food delicacy so long as it really is made by a licensed and well experienced chef however some instances of poisoning still prevail [1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. It is often reported that merely a very low dose of TTX

in blood is adequate for an immediate effect on the host [5]. Studies have concluded that probably the most toxic organs associated with puffer fish are the liver accompanied by the intestine then your skin and ovary. Along with that, TTX can also be found in low concentration in other organs including the eyes and muscles [3, 5, 8, 10].

The research is concentrated on Diodon hystrix which is really a variety of puffer fish of the class Diodontidae which is also called Porcupinefish because of the sharp needle-like structures covering its system being a defense process against predators. Presence of TTX was reported in Diodon hystrix throughout the world [2, 4, 5] but studies on this animal from the sea associated with eastern coastline of India that is the Bay of Bengal is yet to be reported. The purpose of this research is to spot TTX within the crude extract from Diodon hystrix built-up from Chennai Coastal line and also to investigate the Genotoxicity associated with crude extract from respective organs utilizing human leukocyte culture and onion root tips.

The puffer fish ended up being collected from the coastal lines of marina beach, Chennai in early July 2014. The identification associated with puffer fish was done by visual comparison by having an online fish database –www.fishbase.org. The database parameters were set correctly to sample collection site while the possible species obtainable in Bay-of-Bengal region utilizing the matching morphology were only two kinds of Diodon sp.. Out of which Diodon hystrix had the closest match, in line with the skin coloration pattern.

The collected puffer fish were dissected and visceral organs like liver, intestine, kidney, eye, and skin were removed and organs were weighed. The isolation for the tetrodotoxin[3] include from the samples 10 grams of organs were taken and Then suspended in 100ml of three level of 1% acetic acid in methanol without damaging the tissues then a whole materials were within the fridge every day and night at a sterile condition, as an incubation period within the next step the tissue were macerated in a mortar and pestle gently, if the tissues get dried up add required level of the chilled ethanol if needed. Then a slurry were filtered simply by using whatman no. 1 filter paper. Then a filtrate solutions were centrifuged at 12000 rpm for ten minutes at 4 degree Celsius. Then your supernatant were separated and finally the samples were concentrated using lyophilisation to acquire crude extracts for our reason for study

To spot the clear presence of alkaloids [10] to 2mg of crude extracts 5ml of distilled water were added and then 2M hydrochloric acid ended up being added until an acid response occurs. For this 1 ml of Dragendorff’s reagent was added. Formation of orange or orange red precipitate shows the clear presence of alkaloids

Gasoline chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS)[8][11][12]forms an effective combination for Chemical analysis. GC-MS analysis were an indirect approach to detect TTX in a crude extract,

that was hard to purify in other advanced level analysis techniques. In this process, we dissolved TTX as well as its derivatives in 2 ml of 3 M NaOH and heated in a boiling water bath for 30 min. After cooling to room temperature, the alkaline solution of decomposed compounds ended up being adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1N HCl as well as the resulting mixture ended up being chromatographed on a Sep- Pak C18 cartridge (Waters). After washing with H2O first then 10% MeOH, 100% MeOH fraction were collected and evaporated to dryness in vacuo. To the resulting residue, a combination of N, O-bis acetamide, trimethylchlorosilane and pyridine (2: 1: 1) ended up being put into generate trimethylsilyl (TMS) ‘‘C9-base’’ compounds. The derivatives were then put into A hewlett packard gasoline chromatograph (HP-5890-II) built with a mass spectrometer (AutoSpec, Micromass Inc., UK). A column (φ 0.25 mm × 250 cm) of UB-5 ended up being used, while the column temperature is increased from 180 to 250°C at the rate of 5 or 8°C/min. The flow rate of inlet helium carrier gasoline were maintained at 20 ml/min. The ionizing voltage is generally maintained at 70 eV utilizing the ion source temperature at 200°C. Scanning was performed within the mass range of m/z 40–600 at 3s intervals. The total ion chromatogram (TIC) while the fragment ion chromatogram (FIC) were selectively supervised.

In UV spectroscopy, TTX ended up being generally dependant on irradiating a crude toxin with UV light [11][12]. A tiny bit of samples were dissolved in 2 ml of 2 M NaOH and heated in a boiling water bath for 45 min. After cooling to room temperature, samples were examined in UV spectrum and results were seen in the number 270nm to 280nm.

Chromosome preparations were obtained from PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes[14][15]. To your fresh tubes 5ml of Hikaryo XL RPMI ready-mix media and 0.5ml of heparinized Blood (50drops) were added while the contents were mixed gently by shaking. Then Incubated for 72 hours in standing position within an incubator. At the conclusion of 48th hour of incubation, the culture ended up being treated with TTX (0.5ug/ml) (10ul/ 5ml of culture) and once again kept it in incubator for another twenty four hours. At the conclusion of 24th hour incubation, the culture ended up being thoroughly washed by centrifuging this content at 1500rpm for five minutes, discard the supernatant and add 5ml of RPMI 1640 medium. To the content 60 microliter of colchicine ended up being added and tubes were kept for 20 moments incubation in incubator at 37oC and also the content ended up being centrifuged at 1500 rpm for ten minutes after incubation. The supernatant ended up being removed and 6ml of pre-warmed 0.075M hypotonic solution ended up being added. The content was mixed utilizing a Pasteur pipette and incubated at 37 oC in incubator for 6 moments. After incubation the content tube ended up being centrifuged at 2000 rpm for five minutes. The supernatant ended up being discarded and 6ml of Carnoy’s fixative ended up being added and mixed vigorously. After fixation this content ended up being kept in room temperature for 1-2 hours. This content ended up being again centrifuged at 1500 rpm and supernatant ended up being removed and this step ended up being continued until pellet becomes white. For the preparation of slides the newest slides were first refrigerated and then cell button mix was dropped within the slides and dried instantly on a hot plate, then ended up being kept within an incubator for proper drying. The slides were then put into a coplin jar containing Giemsa staining for 4 moments and destained in a coplin jar containing distilled water for 1 minute. The slides were dried and then viewed under microscope for stained chromosome. . The slides were then viewed under 100X power under oil immersion objective associated with microscope to investigate the chromosome aberrations.

The onion root tips[1], 2-3 cm long, were soaked in 100 µM 5-bromodeoxy uridine (BrdUrd) for nearly 20 h accompanied by one hour treatment utilizing the crude extract following a brief wash, the roots were allowed to grow for another round in growing media. The treatments were terminated by washing the roots with distilled water then 0.05% Colchicine was added then incubated for 2.5 h. Roots were washed, excised and fixed in Carnoy’s fixative, for 1-3hrs and preserved at 4°C. The roots were processed utilizing cytology techniques for SCE analysis.. The roots were then hydrolysed in 5 N HCI at 25°C for 92 min and stained with haematoxylin for at least 2hrs. The stained root[16] were washed in distilled water, squashed in a drop of 45% acetic acid and tapped for metaphase chromosome separation under coverslips. Plain tap water controls were contained in the assay. The slides were observed at 100X magnification in oil immersion utilizing light microscope

Fig 1: Showing results of sample after Dragendorff’s test

The alkaloids present in the puffer fish was precipitated as a complex formation by dragendorff’s reagent. Dragendorff’s test results showed really high precipitation in skin and intestine, high precipitation in liver and incredibly low precipitation or almost no precipitation ended up being seen in kidney, gonads and eye.

Our educational specialists are ready and waiting to help with any writing project you’ve probably. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, it is possible to guarantee we now have something perfectly matched to your requirements.

Characteristic peak was observed at retention time 8.33 and 8.66 in liver, intestine and skin after performing alkaline treatment and there was clearly no characteristic peak observed in kidney, eyes and gonads. After boiling of samples that have TTX in alkaline solution (NaOH) the compound TTX present gets paid off to C9 base TMS (trimethysilyl). It really is noteworthy that all peak of selected ion monitored at m/z = 376, 392 and 407 appears at the same retention time within the Selected ion-monitored mass chromatogram associated with TMS derivatives of alkali-hydrolyzed. From examples of liver, kidney and intestine, mass fragments of ion peaks ended up being observed at ion M/z 376, 392 and 407, which are characteristic associated with quinazoline skeleton (C9 base), that was nearly similar as those from the TMS-C9 Base derived authentic TTX

Fig 2: Showing GC-MS spectrum of the TMS derivatives of alkali-hydrolysed toxin from Diodon hystrix

In UV analysis method characteristic peaks were seen in all samples. Shoulder peak ended up being seen in liver, intestine and skin, Declining and Inclining Peaks were observed in kidney, eyes and gonads. The UV spectrum is analyzed for the characteristic of absorptions, related to C9-base .The shoulder peaks were observed at 276 nm shows the forming of C-9 base which were specific to TTX or related substances.

 

Fig 3: Showing chart of UV-spectroscopy associated with crude extract from various organs of Diodon hystrix, peak at 276nm indicating the clear presence of TTX.

Metaphase plates were obtained while observing under 100X magnification in oil immersion utilizing light microscope. It is often observed in all of the samples that there were no chromosomal aberration that is structural or numerical chromosomal modification weren’t observed. Using this result, it may be reported that the crude extract from Diodon hystrix doesn’t have clastogenic (breakage of chromosome) or aneugenic ( change in chromosomal number) impacts.

Fig4(left): Showing metaphase plate from control leukocytes. Fig5(right): Showing metaphase plate from crude extract leukocytes.

The Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) assay was reported to be probably one of the most sensitive and painful short-term genotoxicity assays due to the power to recognize genotoxins at really low doses (Tucker et al.1993). It is often observed that the crude extract from Skin and intestine enhanced SCE somewhat over the control although the Liver, Eye, Gonads and Kidney have very low impacts. So that it are put forth that the crude extract from skin and intestine interfere to a large amount utilizing the SCE and further studies have to be completed.

Fig6(left) : Showing results of SCE in control onion root tip. Fig7(right): Showing results of SCE in crude extract root tip.

From the study, it may be reported that Diodon hystrix from the eastern coastal region of India, observed to possess accumulated TTX in its organs. Therefore it may be toxic when ingested as well as deadly to your predators. However further studies should be completed on this fish to verify the clear presence of a homologue of TTX and get a purified sample associated with TTX.

,

To export a mention of this article please pick a referencing stye below:

If you’re the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have your projects published in the UKDiss.com internet site then please:

Associated Services

,

Our educational writing and marking services can help you!

Related Lectures

,

Study for free with this selection of university lectures!

,

Looking for a flexible role?
Have you got a 2:1 degree or more?

Learn Resources

,

Free resources to help you together with your university studies!

We’ve received widespread press coverage since 2003

Your UKEssays purchase is protected and now we’re rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk

All work is written to order. No plagiarism, guaranteed in full!

We’re here to answer any questions you’ve got about our services

Copyright © 2003 – 2020 – UKEssays is really a trading name of All Answers Ltd, company registered in England and Wales. Company Registration No: 4964706. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ.

*You may also browse our support articles here >

5246 words (21 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Economics Reference this

Disclaimer: This work was submitted with a university student. This is simply not a good example of the work created by our Essay Writing Service. You can view examples of our professional work here.

Any views, findings, conclusions or suggestions expressed in this material are those associated with authors and never always reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Big Onion crop ended up being introduced to Sri Lanka by the British in 1855 and commercial cultivation ended up being introduced by the Department of Agriculture during the 1950’s and in the last years, the crop performance ended up being examined in several areas plus it ended up being observed that big onions are grown economically during every Maha season in the majority of areas.

If you want assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to simply help!

2. Nonetheless, at present the cultivation of big onion is confined and then Matale, Anuradhapura, Puthalama, Pollonnaruwa, Mahawelli and Jaffna Districts. A lot more than 50% associated with total onion production in Sri Lanka is cultivated from the Matale District. [1] 

3. The Government strives to achieve a self adequate stage in the production of big onions since Sri Lanka spends an important sum of money outflow every year in the importation associated with big onions. Meanwhile, within the recent times it is realized that the big onion production was affected in Sri Lanka and so customers may also be having to pay a greater price for the big onions. In particular the big onion production in Dambulla area was declining within the last couple of years.

4. The Dambulla area plays a crucial role in the big onion cultivation in Sri Lanka. The federal Government was having to pay less attention and support on marketing the big onion production in Dambulla.

Therefore, it offers so happened that the onion production in Dambulla has declined within the recent times as a consequence of the government’s less support with this sector. Therefore, the primary reason for this study is always to promote the big onion cultivation within the Dambulla area.

5. This research is completed utilizing the following particular and general objectives.

a. The primary general objective of the study would be to recognize the primary issues encountered within the onion cultivation associated with Dambulla area.

6. The particular objective of the study is always to provide the recommendation to enhance the Big onion cultivation within the Dambulla area and particular objectives are as follows.

a. To review the current history of Big onion cultivation in Dambulla area and also to compare the present situation regarding the Big Onion cultivation.

b. To spot the main problems encountered in big onion cultivation in Dambulla.

c. To spot the critical contributing factors.

d. In order to make suggestions in line with the findings.

2. The Matale District plays a crucial role in the big onion cultivation in Sri Lanka in particular Dambulla provides big onions for the Sri Lankans’ consumption. In the recent past as a result of lack of support from the government sector the big onion cultivation was declining.

3. As a result the big onion cultivation in Dambulla are non existence in the really near future. Also, many farmers rely on the big onion cultivation as their livelihood in Dambulla. Thus, if the big onion cultivation in Dambulla is affected many families will eventually lose their income and it’ll impact the survival of numerous families. Therefore the possible lack of support from the government while the consequent less onion cultivation are thought due to the fact research problem with this study.

4. This scientific tests the declining stage associated with onion cultivation in Dambulla. The scope covers only the Dambulla section of big onion farmers. Therefore, this research was restricted to the onion farmers associated with Dambulla area.

7. This scientific tests the factors influencing the decline associated with big onion cultivation in Dambulla. Therefore, the responses were collected from the neighborhood onion farmers from the Dambulla area. Therefore, 100 big onion farmers were regarded as a sample with this study since all farmers could not be accessible in the limited time with this study. These farmers were selected in a random basis. Therefore, the easy random sampling method ended up being requested picking a the sample.

8. The following limitations were encountered within the study.

a. Time is limited, making sure that within the limited time the research has to be finished this is why in-depth analysis can not be applied.

b. The researcher encountered limitation of resources.

c. The sample ended up being limited only to 100 farmers.

9. The big onion is a significant minor crop consumed by many Sri Lankans and possesses been approximated that 34,000 metric a lot of onion is imported annually and Sri Lanka spends around 300 million rupees on onion importation (Gunawardena, 2009). Also, it is often also approximated that 45,000 labour units are utilized within the onion cultivation and production annually by Sri Lankans and so, it does increase income and employment generation for all Sri Lankans. [2] 

10. Many countries worldwide are getting active in the big onion production. In particular these are typically; Belarus, Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, India, Pakistan etc (Research Institute for Vegetable crops, 2006).

11. Based on Shanmugasundaram (2001) you will find types of onion plus it mainly includes the sweet, red, white, yellow, brown and green etc.

Source – Shanmugasundaram (2008)

12. Also, it is often identified that the big onion production brings several comparative benefits when comparing to with other crops (Autko & Moisevich, 2006). A few of the benefits are listed below.

a. Output can be acquired in a short time of time.

b. Initial costs such as for instance; seeds costs, fertilizer costs are comparatively less.

c. It doesn’t need a set price.

d. Less technology the machines are adequate.

e. High employability of manual labourers.

f. Simple to find markets.

g. Less storage period.

13. The onion fundamentally was split into red onions and onions that are big each variety requires different eco-agricultural conditions, labour, fertilizer, weather and climatic conditions, temperature, etc.

14. The literature shows different needs for smooth growing associated with big onion production. A few of the conditions suggested by Autko and Moisevich (2006) are given below.

a. Increase of fertile soil layers within the zone of plant root by 4-6 cm

b. Increase of aeration and warming of soil, excluding over wetting within the period of heavy precipitation

c. Decrease of fertilizer rate application by 30%

d. Decrease of seed sowing rates

e. Ensuring of looser soil state throughout the whole period of vegetation

f. Risk of soil surface copying by working organs of machines, during inter-row treatment, decreasing of plant protective zone 3-5 cm, mechanical weed destruction by 70-75% and band application of pesticides that ensures the decrease of their rates by 2-3 times

g. Increase of irrigation efficiency

h. Diminution of nitrate content within the production

j. Decrease of energy expense during harvesting by 20-40%.

15. Therefore, the above mentioned conditions can be viewed as due to the fact basic needs for the growth and survival associated with big onion production.

16. The onion fundamentally was split into red onions and large onions and each variety requires different eco-agricultural conditions, labour, fertilizer, weather and climatic conditions, temperature, etc.

17. Shanmugasundaram, (2001) has identified the following diseases that affect the onion cultivation. He’s divided these deceases into two.

a. Field diseases

b. Storage diseases

18. The field diseases comprises of Stemphylium blight , Purple blotch, Anthracnose, Botrytis leaf blight, Downy mildew, Pink root, Smudge, Smut and several Basal rots (Shanmugasundaram, 2001).

19. The storage diseases covers common field rots, botrytis neck rot, black mold and bacterial soft rot (Shanmugasundaram, 2001).

20. Meanwhile it is often learned that within the recent times the onion cultivation was reducing due to many factors. Some factors identified by Kulatunga (2006) are presented below.

a. Lack of quality seeds

b. Lack of advice provided for application of seeds

c. Insufficient loan facilities open to purchase quality seeds

d. Long durations taken for harvesting from seeds

e. Lack of government support in providing fertilizer facilities to your onion production

f. Lack of quality fertilizers readily available for the onion producers

g. Lack of accessibility to fertilizer at outside and private outlets

h. Absence of counselling and advice provided on how best to apply the fertilizers for the new variety

j. Lack of storage facilities to store the onion production.

21. Though these problems are encountered within the onion production it may be split into two major categories. These are listed below.

a. Lack of government support in providing seeds to your onion cultivators.

b. Lack of government support to offer fertilizer to onion cultivation.

22. It is often observed that big onion cultivation was affected to greater degree by the possible lack of government motivation in finding needed seeds. Therefore; lack of quality seeds, lack of counselling and advise on applying seeds, lack of new number of seeds, insufficient government economic support to acquire seeds, absence of assurance on harvesting length etc are encountered under seeds (Kulatunga, 2006).

23. Kulatunga (2006) has additionally identified there is no adequate fertilizer support to inspire the big onion production. In Sri Lanka it is often learned that the onion farmers lack government financing and subsidies to get fertilizers. Also, fertilizer is sold at a fairly high price in the exterior outlets. In addition the efficient and harvest stimulating fertilizers are not readily available for the onion farmers. Also the quality and different number of fertilizers may also be not available to improve the big onion cultivation within the Dambulla area.

24. It is crucial that the onion production is increased to be able to protect the big onion industry and also to guarantee the livelihood of numerous Sri Lankans. Thus the literature shows that the following measures can boost the onion production.

a. Involving in research and development activities to be able to boost the onion production.

b. Government providing support to find quality seeds.

c. Government has to provide seeds associated with new varieties.

d. Government has to offer seeds at subsidized costs.

e. Government has to offer constant counselling and advice on control seeds.

f. Government has to increase the fertilizer subsidy.

g. Providing high quality fertilizer.

h. Monitoring fertilizer distribution.

j. Counselling on handling diseases.

(Source – Formed with this Research Study)

26. The above mentioned figure depicts two sets of factors that determine the reduction in the onion cultivation; the possible lack of seed accessibility while the lack of fertilizer accessibility. It was produced from Kulatunga (2006). Each group of the major factors have sub factors. Therefore, both of these are thought due to the fact independent variables. The decreasing onion cultivation are recognized as the dependent variable. Thus, this figure establishes links between your factors while the decreasing onion cultivation. Through this research study one need to know which factor(s) cause for the decreasing onion cultivation, on the list of farmers within the Dambulla area.

Factors determining the onion cultivation

Lack of seeds accessibility

Receiving quality seeds

Likert

Q1

Distribution of seeds by the federal government

Likert

Q2

Provision of subsidy by the federal government to buy seeds regularly

Likert

Q3

Seeds providing the expected harvest

Likert

Q4

Purchase seeds from the Government Agricultural Department

Likert

Q5

Provision of training and counselling about the new seeds by the federal government

Likert

Q6

I am able to get new types of seeds

Likert

Q7

I am able to get regular counselling and advice associated with diseases in the seeds

Likert

Q8

Lack of fertilizers accessibility

Fertilizer subsidy from the government

Likert

Q9

Purchase of fertilizer from the Government Agricultural Department

Likert

Q10

Purchase of fertilizer from the private outlets at a less price

Likert

Q11

Getting quality fertilizer

Likert

Q12

Getting advice and counselling for the use of fertilizers

Likert

Q13

Getting different number of fertilizers

Likert

Q14

Getting fertilizer that may maximize the harvest

Share this article

Comments are closed.